(20) The definition of having ‘brother’, aha inside the BT, features simultaneously already been enhanced, even though this function is also included in Turoyo. Hertevin features both ?aha and ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), however, Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).
On top of that, external NENA, we have other conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)
(21) One to instead strange items which is attested in most NENA dialects except Sanandaj Christian (and that probably simply a go pit on the proof) is aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues that the keyword comes from the resources ql ‘to end up being crooked’. Most of the languages use the mode aqla, but Koy Sanjaq aqla and Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.
(22) Various other word discussed of the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty-two, 134) are baxta ‘woman’, with supplanted the fresh Syriac atta in all NENA, not in the Turoyo otherwise Mandaic. That it phrase appears to be a consequence of Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is fascinating to note one an unequal plural endures into the numerous dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you will Halabja inse.
(23) An urgent development mentioned by Noldeke (1868, 59) is actually rxata, comparable to Syriac rhat. The change from h to x within this one word is used in the NENA dialects the spot where the verb is actually attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi roentgen-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).
(24) Several other unexpected advancement is the NENA verb ‘fear’, that takes the latest versions zda?a beneficial, zdaya, and you can zdala from the some languages. Macuch and Panoussi (1974, 50) give a possible derivation about Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Versions to your infixed d are located in every the fresh NENA dialects where in fact the sources is actually attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)
Not all the of pinpointing top features of NENA are found in both Turoyo otherwise Mandaic
In my opinion that the more than makes it obvious that the NENA languages share numerous unique faculties that are located neither in the previous attested forms of Aramaic nor on other way of living languages. These features variety along the domain names of phonology, morphology, and lexicon.
Especially, the languages from NENA agree from inside the requirements 2, nine, fourteen, fifteen, 16, 21, and you will twenty two. All dialects where i have pointers in addition to agree with requirements 20, 23, and you will 24.
All but Halabja concur during the standards 8 and you may 11. Expectations six is located in all languages but Halabja, Hertevin, and you may Sanandaj Religious.
Despite their inner departments, the brand new NENA dialects form a strikingly coherent class, split demonstrably out-of each other Turoyo and you may Mandaic. The position of them languages outside the NENA soft is out of concern.
The amount that features is common around the NENA is specially impressive when we check out the astounding differences when kostenlose Dating-Seiten fÃ¼r Heterosexuelle considering the various dialects. The dictate away from most other dialects toward NENA might have been each other strong and you may large, therefore the level of mutual intelligibility between dialects can be quite small. Many mutual designs argue strongly getting a familiar resource away from the fresh NENA languages, in a choice of a single dialect or perhaps in a team of directly related dialects. Meanwhile, we could discern several important packages away from isoglosses and therefore depict the fresh boundaries out of dialect communities.
a) The newest dialect of Halabja does not express some crucial designs and that are found owing to every remainder of the languages. It doesn’t form a great CCiC-ce preterite of intransitive verbs (8), this has no b(it)- upcoming marker (10), possesses zero third people just one copula that have step one (11). This is more standard section between dialects from NENA. It indicates that left dialects setting a team through which designs spread if you find yourself Halabja remained unchanged from the them.